Copy of a journal kept by Matthew Henry Crosby

                During a voyage from Plymouth, England, to Port Adelaide, South Australia,

                In the sailing ship Cromwell   From 10th April to 20th July 1849.

The  original of  this Journal was lodged  with  the South Australian  Archives  in  1952.  
This version was transcribed by David Crosby (great great grandson  of Matthew)

(Dots ……… appearing in this typescript indicate torn out or illegible portions of the original Journal.)

 Dear Sister,
According to promise I send you the Journal which I kept on Shipboard, as I know you will be particularly anxious to hear of our passage to this far distant land.
We set sail from Plymouth on Tuesday 10th April 1849 at half past six in the evening with a fair wind.
Wednesday 11th April
The females in our party , all of them rather sick this morning, not for much breakfast, the sea is rather rough ,fair wind , a deal of sickness today especially among the women, the men some of them feel rather sick, the wind continues fair.
Thursday 12th April.
A beautiful morning, none of our party sick, seen some large porpoise fish today.
Friday 13th April
Very stormy now and has been since one o clock all our party in bed  and most of them sick. John Jepson got up but  he had to go to bed again. I must see some tea for them all ,very rough sea all day, all our party sick, and a great many passengers besides, our females not been up today nor the children.
Saturday 14th April.
Ten o clock in the morning, Eleanor and Eliza in bed the rest of …….party all up, and feeling middling sickness occasionally among the females………..are now on the Spanish coast, the sea stil continues rough, I have not been  sick yet, but we all seem very dull tonight .
Sunday 15th April
Not quite so rough ………. People, all of them a little better, we have had church prayers, the Doctor officiated as  Minister, we have not got a minister onboard.  We have all enjoyed our food today of roast beef .Our party are a great deal better .The sea is a great de…….., which I hope will revive them all up again.
Monday 16th April
A very wet  a……….. morning, the sea is very rough, the waves come all over the top of the ship. With very great difficulty we can walk on deck this morning, we all appear as if we were drunk, first one staggering and falling then another .It is a bit of fine fun for those who can keep up, the females sick again, we thought we would have nice steak for them to breakfast, but, we had no sooner got it on the stove  than a sudden gust of wind came and pan and steak all over together, what a misfortune besides me getting a tumble into the bargain, the sea is a little calmer this evening.
Tuesday 17th April
We have a favourable wind this morning, going nicely along  about the rate of ten miles per hour .We are all well and enjoyed our breakfasts. ,we seem to get wafted along through the mighty deep, may God preserve us from all danger. We have just seen a ship.
Wednesday 18th April
A fine wind our party all well this morning ,we have had it rather rough last night ,we lost some of our sail . Have seen a great many porpoises today.
Thursday 19th April
A beautiful morning but not much wind for us, we prefer being on deck it is so warm. We are now out of Europe, it is the custom with the sailors to put their shoes and stockings off as soon as they get out of Europe and that they have done this morning. They will not pit them on any more I suppose till they  get near the Cape . We are now on the African coast.
Friday 20th April.
A fine morning all well, the wind is in our favour,  we have been busy among our boxes getting a month's  supply of linen out and………..
Saturday 21st April.
Very warm this morning, not much wind we are going very slow.
Sunday 22nd April
Very warm, we have all been very much alarmed this morning just as we were sitting down to breakfast, Eliza's youngest,  child John James , had a fit ,he had been very restless during the night, and has a bad cough for some time , he is likewise cutting his teeth. The Doctor was immediately sent for and had him in a warm bath mustard and water ,applied  other means to restore him, but it pleased God  to take him in the evening about seven o clock after about twelve hours of extreme illness. I do not think the child was  ever at all conscious after he had the fit. Eliza and James feel their loss very much, indeed it has cast a damp on us all. Our little John Henry has just another such cough and is likewise about his teeth, but  hope he will be spared. That we must leave in the hands of God, he doeth  all things for some wise end. The child will be let  into the sea tomorrow.
Monday 23rd April.
A beautiful morning, but a dreary prospect for  James and Eliza. Eleven o clock the child was let  down into the sea. He was put into a large box with a great deal of  sand in, and a few holes bored  to let the water in that it might easier sink the box, but we could see it floating for a long way. The Doctor read the burial service, James and Eliza seem to feel it very much, and no wonder, when we think that the dear child was obliged to be thrown over  board into the sea, instead of being decently laid in some Churchyard, although at the last day the sea shall give up her dead. His spirit is now with the Lord, may you and I try  to meet it along with the rest of our  dear Friends who have gone before, no matter how distant from each other on earth  we shall meet in heaven if we are found faithful to the end .
Tuesday 24th April
A fine wind for us this morning , all middling. Eliza is as well as you can expect considering the melancholy proceedings yesterday. I was on watch last night  We take it in  turns, two at a time  to see that there are no private lights kept burning, or anything that is calculated to endanger or  annoy  the passengers. There are some on board who are thought not over honest, although we have not lost anything yet, there are some of the passengers who have been making complaints. It is our William's birthday today. He is seven years old, we have had a plum pudding to dinner, but not quite so rich a one  as we might have had in England, still a very good one.  We have just seen some flying fish. They are small  and resemble a snipe as much as anything I can compare them to.
Wednesday 25th April
All of us pretty well and a nice wind. We have the Cape de Verde Islands in sight, but at a great distance off. We can just discover them through a glass. The wind has been in our  favour  all day.
Thursday 26 th April.
All of us middling except Eleanor and …….. baby. They are both unwell. Eleanor feels sick and John Henry has a bad cough…….. a great many porpoises and flying fish today. William had a bath this morning.
Friday 27th April
A beautiful morning , Mary Ann has had a bath, there has been…….. case  on board . This morning a female in the next berth to us was safely delivered of a little boy, about 8 0 clock, doing only middling, she has been… since she came on board and appears in a very delicate way, there……… two or three to all appearance in a promising way, and will be hard……. Up till they reach the far end of the voyage.The sun is quite perfect…over our heads today at twelve o clock.
Saturday 28th April
All of us middling, a very hot morning  overset almost with heat. I laid on deck a great part of last night; it was beautiful we really felt so warm in our berths and there was such a nice breeze on deck. I enjoyed it much.
Sunday 29th April
Still keeps very warm and will do until we have crossed the line which I hope will not be many days hence, although we are making very poor progress now. The sea is very calm and there is no wind. We are nearly at a stand still. The sailors say we might happen to be here a week or two if a calm sets in which is often the case  about the line. We have  had Church Prayers and the Doctor likewise reads a sermon to us every Sunday, weather permitting. Have just seen a lot of Mother Carey's chickens. They are a small bird  and resemble a swallow very much. We are almost overset with heat today.
Monday 30th April.
It is Eleanor's birthday today. We all still keep almost suffocated, and are making very little or no progress. That is the worst of it, if we were only going at eight or ten  miles an hour as we ought to be doing. We should be past this warm part, but hope the wind will soon blow and waft us along .We have caught two sharks today, the first one was very large and would weigh betwixt 230 lbs. and240 lbs.. We baited a large fish hook with pork, seeing we had one or two after the ship, they appeared hungry and soon took the bait, and we hoisted them up on deck, and a bit of fine fun we had. The first one was soon cut up and the sailors cat had some of it, but I could not fancy him at all. It is rather singular , they are the only two we have seen since we set out, and caught them both. The second was  a small  one. They are very frightful fish and there are two small fishes always accompany them, what they call pilot fish. It is no good omen I suppose when the shark follows a ship for any length of time, but perhaps it may all be an old wife's tale. They say it is a sign of death.
Tuesday 1st May
We are all in a middling way. It still keeps very warm. The sea is as calm as a fish pond, we scarcely move at all today. There was a great deal of thunder and lightning last night, the rain pours down incessantly. We are now in the tropics and I think likely to be for some time .
Wednesday 2nd May.
Wet morning, the poor woman who was confined last week is in a very weakly way. The hot weather is all against her, I  am afraid there will be very little chance of her recovery- rained all last night  and all the day today, still very warm and moving but slowly, no wind for us.. We have seen another shark today. He followed the ship  at least kept about the ship. - for a long time we tried much to catch him, but he was too old for us, he would not take the bait.
Thursday 3rd
A very warm morning and we are becalmed- that is the worst of it. We have got out of  what is called  the Trade Winds, but the Captain says we shall catch them again after we have crossed the line, if only we could have a good breeze to get us to the line, how thankful we should be  for after that we should soon get into cooler climate. There are not many comforts  I can assure you on board the Cromwell. WE have about one hundred more passengers  than we should have . There are above three hundred of us  Men Women and Children, and this hot weather we really feel almost suffocated, - all sorts of characters among us , some spend a great part of the night singing and drinking, and that prevents others from sleep, but I think it will be put a stop to . We all seem to put up with the inconvenience quite as well as I expected or better, only we still have our health we shall get through. The Doctor is afraid of fever this hot weather. Our little Johnny has been
vaccinated. It took beautifully and was at the height yesterday. William and Anny have had  a good ducking this morning.
Friday 4th May.
Very hot , yet we  had a breeze last night , and got on a little, but this morning we are quite at a stand. I have more bad news for you, death is shooting his arrows on board the Cromwell, who will be the next God Almighty  knows . The woman who was confined a week since today is no more . She died yesterday at four o clock in the afternoon, the weather being so hot  and she so very weak has sunk. They got her up on deck yesterday morning thinking it would be cooler, and she would get more air, but when she came up death was pictured in her countenance. She said herself she would be a corpse before night, and so she was. The little one is still alive  but very delicate and not likely to be reared as they cannot get the comforts on sea as on land. The Husband , poor man is almost distracted, a sad pitiable condition to be in . He has two other children, the eldest boy about four years old , the other a girl about two. No female relative along with him now . He has a brother  a young man who has come out with them. They are Irish people and they had their wake last night . He and his brother got about six or eight people to sit up with them all night . They sat around the corpse  and spent the night in smoking  and a glass or two of grog, which is  a custom among the Irish  suppose. Occasionally they got a bit of bread and cheese. We have just committed the remains of the Female  to the silent deep. She was not put in a box like J .Jepson's  little boy, but  sewn up in linen along with some sand, and it sunk directly. We saw nothing-- no more of it  after it was let down. I do not like to witness  such funerals  as those. The poor husband  and motherless children are very much to be pitied.
Saturday 5th May
Very hot, got on a little last night, but we are at a stand still now again. There has been a rule made today that during the excessive hot weather, half of the male passengers shall be out on deck one  part of the night  and the remainder the other part, the Doctor thinking it will leave the tween decks airy, and there will be less chance of disease. We all quite agree to it for the benefit of our  Dear Wife's  and family's. We begin tonight for the first time. I am on the second watch and have to get up at two o clock
Sunday 6th May
I feel very poorly this morning, feverish and  a bad headache. The Doctor has given me some medicine to take -laid in bed all day. We are
going on a little I suppose . It rains and pours down.
Monday 7th May
Still continues raining fast. We were in a pretty  mess  last night , the rain came pouring into the birth  where we sleep, and me ill in bed. We were I assure you in a bad way, but we got it stopped in a short time, not before all the bed clothes got wet, nice comforts on board ship  Mrs. Rooke, never mind we have been going nicely along  today and expect to cross the line tonight. That will help to make these little inconveniences. I did not get up until tea time , I felt so bad in my head, thought I should be better still in bed. They caught another fish today, but only a small one I suppose, have not seen it .  Eleanor  says it is a most beautiful looking fish, but havehave not heard what they  call it.
Tuesday 8th May.
I feel a little better this morning, and am glad to say the rest of our party are all middling. I was afraid we should have caught cold  during the heavy rain , some of us. We have escaped pretty well thus far. We crossed the Line some time during last night , and now the sailors , as is their custom are coming round with old Neptune dressed up, about half a dozen of them get their faces  painted  and go around the deck trailing two sailors dressed up as Neptune and his wife, and those of the passengers  who will not give them anything  are to have their faces blacked , and scraped with a piece of sharp iron, but all I think were unanimous  and gave them  a  trifle. They were  not at all hard upon us  and we might give  what we liked . I gave them sixpence for the whole family  and they were quite satisfied . It is just a bit of fun among themselves . There was one old man , thought he would not give them anything and said they durst not molest him, tried to persuade others not to give  anything , but at  the last end when all had given but him, they marched him up on the fore castle , got their shaving apparatus , and commenced lathering with a ship's broom and some tar the old man  before the razor came to his beard was very willing to hand out a shilling, whereas before he would have got over it for threepence, but they would have put the iron  razor on had He  given them a  shilling the money to the Captain and he lets them have grog , a small quantity at a time  until it is run out. They are desperate fellows for grog  are the sailors.
Wednesday 9th May
I feel a great deal better and the rest of our party are all well . It is not quite so hot today. In about three weeks I suppose we will get into winter weather. It is  wet again today and we have just harpooned a fine porpoise fish. The sailors say it will be good to eat, we must try it.It does not look very tempting.
Thursday 10th May
A fine cool morning, all of us well and going pretty good speed. The porpoise  did not taste particularly well, it looked very much like beef stake when made ready, thinks I. This will be capital, we must try to catch some more of these chaps, but the taste was quite enough , I wanted no more, some of them………..
Friday 11th May
Showery and rather cool, all our party well and we are going at the rate of seven miles  an hour which is middling. I have gone without stockings  for the last  fortnight  and feel  much cooler. Most of the men go without  in this warm climate, and even some of the women, a few men without  shoes or stockings  like the sailors-- going at ten miles an hour tonight .
Saturday 12th May
A beautiful morning . We have a good breeze which I hope will soon waft us to the Cape, yet, with a fair wind I suppose we shall be a fortnight yet, so it might happen a month. The little infant that lost its Mother is very ill. I think it will  not live long
Sunday 13th May
Fine morning, good breeze. Little John Henry has been very ill during last night, we almost always have bad nights  with him, which makes it very harassing for poor Eleanor. She begins to look very thin and poorly. I am afraid we shall not rear him. He is so very delicate. We are about eighteen hundred miles from the Cape today. We have had Church Prayers, and a sermon read by the Doctor as usual.
Monday  14th May
A good stiff breeze, we are going ahead this morning, have got into a little cooler  climate, but still it is warm .We are all middling except  Mrs. Sootheran , she feels rather sick. The Ship rocks about  more than it had done for some time , but I do  not mind much  for that so long as we are getting along.
Tuesday 15th May
All well and going a good speed,- a ship in sight this morning making for the same direction as us .We are as near St Helena  as wwe shall be, and that is about two hundred miles from it , so Mr. Leng  will stand a poor chance of getting his sprig of willow  that overhangs Bounaparte's  grave. There is talk of us not  putting in at  The Cape of Good Hope. It will be very well if we do not for it will  take up time , and we are wishful to be at the end of our voyage . I do not think the Captain intends calling  if we can hold out for provisions  and water, which I hope we shall.
Wednesday 16th May
Jane Grace not very well this morning , it is rather cooler and we are going on  briskly, but we are not at all comfortable . There are so many of us , if we had only half the quantity of passengers we might have been a great deal more comfortable . There is plenty of good provisions , but the water has now got very bad  and it smells awfully, and we have nothing else to drink . We must  either take it or go without. We shall enjoy a draught of good spring water  and a bit of fresh meat if we are spared to reach Adelaide .
Thursday 17th May
A fine morning, not going quite so fast. We have been busy among our boxes, getting a month's  supply of linen and clothes today. We have access to them once a month, our clothes get damp, and I am afraid  some of them will be very much mildewed before we reach Adelaide , if we are spared -- seen a great many porpoise fish today but  could not catch any of them . It is dark now, a little after six in the evening  and begins to be light about  six in the morning.
Friday 18th May.
A beautiful morning, but Mrs. Sootheran not very well, going slowly. It has been a most beautiful day. I have been talking to the Doctor about  Eleanor. She  is getting very weak. He is going to allow her a bottle of Porter occasionally  as  a medical comfort. We are very friendly with him. They sell the Porter at one shilling a bottle on shipboard, the draught Porter one shilling a quart. They  will have such enormous profits . If I could have brought a quantity of bottled Porter out  do not know what would have paid better . The Innkeepers here sell English Porter at one shilling and three pence per bottle same as is retailed out  in England for eight pence.
Saturday 19th May.
Still keeps fine but we are making poor progress, all well this morning  I was invited to take a glass of Porter with one of the cabin passengers last night , of course I accepted the invitation and a comfortable glass or two we had together .  Two ships in sight today, one of them a long way from us.
Sunday 20th May.
Going very slow, and it is rather warm, we have scarcely any breeze at all , hope the wind will soon blow and that from the right quarter . Had prayers and a sermon read by the Doctor as usual.
Monday 21st May
We have no breeze yet, it still keeps warm, we dislike this standing still , the worst of anything, hope we shall not remain long in this predicament , nothing particular today, hope we will have some blowing news for you in the morning .Tuesday 22nd May
All well and a good breeze, we are going a little now, the  sea is rather rough, but that we had much rather have  especially when we have a right wind , as have it smooth and at a stand still.
Wednesday 23rd May
All middling considering it is a  very stormy morning. It was very rough last night . We were very much tossed about, tin kettles  and pans  rolling about in all directions. We could not get any sleep, what with them, and the sailors shouting , there was no very serious damage done, but the man who was at the helm steering lost all command over it. He was knocked down and the lights went out. The Captain was quickly on the spot with other two or three men, otherwise we might have soon been capsized . The sea reallyis most beautiful, the waves keep rolling and forming into such a large size . They are like so many great mountains ,it is splendid, a very rich treat indeed . There are two men now on the wheel and will be when the weather is rough . The sailors take it in turns, fresh ones every two hours.
Thursday 24th May.
All middling this morning , rather rough again last night , a slight disturbance amongst the tins, but not a tenth part  so bad as the night before, going briskly at eleven miles an hour.
Friday 25th May.
All well and a fine morning, and another increase on board. A female safely delivered a little girl, about four o clock this morning. She got over it very well, and , as the old phrase goes , " she is as well as can be expected." Hope she will continue to improve , she looks to be a  stronger constitutioned  woman than the last one that was confined . We have seen some Cape hens and pigeons today. The hens are a little larger  than a crow and a dark brown colour, the pigeons are a beautiful speckled bird about the size of your tame pigeons in  England, they come very close to the ship and light on the water to pick pieces of biscuit or anything  that may be thrown overboard.
They are called Cape birds , but still we are a long way from the Cape of Good Hope yet.
Saturday 26th May.
A fine morning, all well but going slow, no particular news today, it is the scrubbing up day. WE have to assist in making all clean and tidy about our births, which is quite right , to keep off illness if we can, some of them are rather  ? about cleaning but we keep reminding them of the result, if they will not be cleanly they must expect a fever or some illness breaking out among us.
Sunday 27th May.
Going nicely and all well, this being Whit Sunday our party have had a glass of wine to drink the health of all friends in England , particularly those about Linton and Newton, Church Prayers  and a sermon read by one of the Cabin passengers .
Monday28th May.
All well except Mrs. Sootheran . She does not feel very capital this morning, two ships insight one of them only a short distance from us, going very nicely. It is dark now at half past five o clock in the evening  and coming in cold. We all feel so glad that we have got out of the hot climate . We shall have no more hot weather now until we reach the far end, which hope we shall in time, but we must have patience .
Tuesday 29th May
Not going quite so quick this morning , but thank God all our party are pretty well. There are a great many Cape birds about us today which makes all look so pleasant, likewise a ship in sight . It  is a splendid sight to see, a ship out at sea sailing away, with all her sails up, I suppose the Newtonians will be enjoying themselves today  as it is their feast, no doubt but Mr & Mrs. Leng will pay their old respected village a visit, to mingle in the sports of the day, hope they will enjoy themselves.
Wednesday 30th May.
A fine morning, going on nicely. The weather here resembles your  Autumn in England now. We have a great many seabirds  about us  again, and many of the passengers are out there with their guns, and shoot one occasionally, but cannot get them . They are a beautiful bird .We must try if we cannot catch some of them with a hook. The Captain says it can easily be done. I do not feel very well today, but hope I shall soon be  well again.
Thursday 31st May.
Going on a good speed, more birds in sight , some of them shot
Friday 1st June
Going slow, more birds shot , we have seen a great many  very large handsome birds called the Albatross. We must have a try to catch some of them. They are as large as your Geese in England, and such a beautiful eye they have got. They really look splendid. I am ill today and have had to go to bed  this afternoon. It is not sea sickness but  a bad head ache which I am often  accustomed to, I often wish I could be right well sea sick I think it would do me so much good.
Saturday 2nd June.
Making slow progress again today, the passengers have seen a whale fish, I did not see it being ill in bed, but I suppose it was a monster.  We were not very near to it by all accounts  so they could not see it to perfection.
Sunday 3rd June
I feel a little better this morning, the rest of our party all well, I got up to  Church Service , that we have had as usual.  We are going a little faster today.  The infant  that lost its Mother about a month ago breathed its last today at half past two o clock. I never thought it would be reared , no comforts to get for it on Shipboard , to what there might have been on land , better off where it is, poor  thing.
Monday 4th June.
A beautiful morning we are all middling . They have just let the baby down into the sea. It was sewn in canvas, and sunk directly, a happy release for it . We have seen many more of the Albatrosses, and other birds, but have not caught any yet.
Tuesday 5th June.
We have a good stiff breeze  this morning   and are going on very well at the rate  of ten miles an hour, which we have been doing most of the night , hope in about six weeks we shall begin to think about landing, if all be well, that will be delightful, for we are getting tired of ship board, nothing for us to employ our time , we must have patience , and I have no doubt we shall get to see Adelaide. We often talk and wonder whether Charles Jepson and his family have got off. I think they will not come. I am afraid Charles would not like the shipboard life. There a great many inconveniences to put up with which is only known to those who have experienced it.
Wednesday 6th June
All middling, we have  an innumerable company of birds about us this morning of all descriptions almost. They are most beautiful , many of them, but I think the Albatross outshines them all. Some of them are a nice light colour, and some are a rich brown with white head and breast. The passengers have shot one of or two  the Albatrosses but could not get them. We want them to give over shooting at them, then in a day or two  they will be more bold, come closer up to the ship, and we might be able to catch some of them. I should like to have one on board very much.
Thursday 7th June
All well and a most beautiful morning not many birds in sight . It is quite decided that we shall not call at the Cape, so I cannot send you a letter until we reach the far end . One of the passengers shot an Albatross today. We are moving slowly, the sea being so calm that the Captain had a small boat let down , and two or three sailors  along with a passenger or two   out  of  the Cabin, went to fetch the Albatross that was shot, it was not quite dead, but had received a severe wound in the head which made him rather giddy. It is a fine bird, wings from  tip to tip nine feet and a half, body the size of your large geese  in England, and bill resembling that of a goose but tapering of more at the point, and such a beautiful head and large round  eye , he is quite a curiosity.
 Friday 8th June.
A fine morning, but we are nearly at a standstill, that is the worst of it. The sea is very calm, hope we shall soon have a good breeze.
Saturday 9th June.
All well, going slow, John Henry is getting quite fat with his sea voyage  , he has indeed improved wonderfully lately, but still he does not look healthy. I think we shall never rear him, William and Mary Ann keep very well and have both got stouter , poor things they always seem quite happy  amongst all the bustle and throng. William is on deck by length of day , and is always ready for a pull at the rope's end , when the sailors are busy with it. There is one song they always sing in drawing one particular sail up, the main top sail, it is headed, " Cheer up Man" and William generally sings and pulls with them at that. They are very fond of children are most of the sailors . William and Anny  have dined with them once or twice. Little Charles Jepson is looking better. but I do not think any of us grown up people will gain any flesh during the voyage , still on the other hand we have not lost much yet I think Eleanor is thinner. She looks the worst of any of us.
Sunday 10th June.
A fine morning and a good breeze, it cheers our spirits to think we are going on nicely, Church service conducted  by one of the cabin passengers, the Doctor being  engaged in another case of labour. The woman was safely delivered of a little girl at four o  clock this afternoon. She seems rather a delicate woman, but I think they are both doing as well as can be expected. This makes three births, on the other hand there has been three deaths , so we have not lessened our number yet. I think we shall increase still more, before we reach the end of our voyage.
Monday 11th June.
A good stiff breeze, we are going ahead this morning , it always gladdens my heart when we are going a good speed , we always feel the motion of the ship more when she is going least, she seems to rock about  so, first up then down then on one side , afterwards on the other, we seem to be a great deal more steady-- when she is going briskly along, except the sea be very rough, then of course it is different. Jane Grace is still in bed today, she has got a little cold, hope she will soon be better. Mrs. Sootheran has thus far stood the voyage better than any of her daughters. I do not know how they would have done without her, she really is a wonder.
Tuesday 12th June.
A fine morning and going well, not many birds in sight, I am afraid we shall have a rough night , the sea begins to roll, and the porpoises have showed themselves a great deal today, which the sailors say is  a sign of a storm, but they are not always right , we must not be downhearted before it comes on , Cheer Up Man.
Wednesday 13th June.
We had a very rough night, scarcely any sleep for any of us. William was very much afraid for the first time, he wakened during the night and heard the sailors upon deck running about and shouting , he began crying , and asked if the ship was sinking, but we soon got him pacified . He was still very much afraid ,in the  morning and said he thought the ship was sinking. It is still rough this morning, seen a monster whale but he was a great distance from us. We are going fast, got past the Cape of Good Hope, but saw noland, we were too great a distance from it, so we shall not see the Cape.
Thursday 14th June.
A fine morning but rather cold, we have gone two hundred and forty miles  this last twenty four hours, which is considered good work, not going quite so quick now, hope in about a month or five weeks from this time we shall be nearly  if not all out, at the end of our voyage , providing we have fair winds. One of the passengers caught an  Albatross today with a line and hook baited  with a piece of pork. It is a fine bird... .I was there at the drawing of him up. We had  a bit of fun with him. They talk of skinning it and making  a pie of the carcase, but I do not think they will be very good to eat, being so much on n the  water they will be rather tough. I often wish I could send you one of them alive to Linton, you would be much pleased with it, but that cannot be done.
Friday 15th June
Fine  morning the sea is not so rough, we are going nicely. I think we have got into the latitude of birds today, we have such quantities of them about the ship, chiefly Albatrosses and pigeons, a few of the latter have been caught . They are a very pretty bird , and live I should think  chiefly on the water. We have not tasted any yet.
Saturday 16th June.
Going slow, another increase about four o clock this morning, the complaint has got among the young women now, as one of them has been delivered of a little girl. I thought the married women were doing well, but if the young ones begin we shall be getting overstocked before we get to the far end. She had no baby clothes made at all , no preparation whatever, but contrived to borrow  a few little things amongst the passengers , who were very kind in lending her such things as were necessary. She had been frequently asked by  the Doctor and likewise some of the females , if she was not in the family way, and she always persisted that she was dropsical, and told the doctor so up to the very last hour, till it did indeed drop  into her arms . The father of the child is supposed to be on shipboard , she has a Mother and two sisters  along with her , and of course they appear very much cast down. They are both doing as well as can be expected.
Sunday 17th June.
A fine morning, our party all well. We have a good breeze and are going very nicely. This is the anniversary of our wedding day, eight years since  today little did we think that we should be so far fro our relatives and especially on the mighty deep, but we  know not what  has come to pass, before the end of another eight years  some of us may be laid in the silent tomb. Oh that we may be prepared for that  solemn change  whenever it shall come to pass. The Doctor came down  and took a friendly cup of tea with us this afternoon , he brought with him a canister of  preserved milk such as they use in the cabin, to their tea, but we steerage passengers have not that privilege, yet we are quite satisfied  with what we have allowed . If we keep to what we are at we shall not hunger by the way. I think they are very liberal with their allowances of provisions. Church service as usual, conducted by the Doctor, who is very punctual.
Monday 18th June.
A fine morning but going very slow, hope we shall increase speed before night . We shall soon begin to think and prepare for landing. I just think what a bustle we shall all be in when we get to the Port, if we are fortunate to reach it, more birds insight , one or two of the Cape pigeons caught today. They are to be roasted.
 Tuesday  19th  June
A  good wind, going ten miles an hour , and has been  most of the night, the sea is rather rough. It is a fine winter's day. You would think it strange to spend a winter's day in the middle  of June, but so it is here, the sailors some of them  that have passed the Cape in the month of June says , that they have had it very cold indeed and snowy weather .
Wednesday 20th June.
 A great deal of thunder and lightning this morning  accompanied with rain  , it is very dark and dull, but we are going nicely, and has been all last night. Barnaby  Fare will be on now . I just think how busy  they will all be at Boro-Bridge. I cannot help but think about places in England , that I have spent a few years at.
Thursday 21st June
Going nicely and all well. It is rather squally today. This I suppose is Barnaby bright , the longest and shortest night , but we must reverse the thing here , the days are at their shortest, it is quite dark at five o clock in the afternoon. We have just passed a ship that is going to China . We were very close indeed to them , so that the captain spoke  through his trumpet to their Captain. It is cheering to be  within sight of a ship but a great deal more so  when you come within hearing  We have had her in sight all day, and we gave them three cheers  when we passed her.
Friday 22nd June..
A fine winter's morning again. We have a good wind and are going beautifully . We have quite lost sight of the other ship, they have taken a different direction to what we are going , so it is a chance we will shall see her anymore. She was not a passenger ship, but laden with merchandise .
Saturday 23rd June.
A fine morning but cold , we have two other ships in sight  this morning, which is a most beautiful sight , but one of them is a long way from us. I often think Mr, Leng had courage to come he would be very much pleased  with the birds and fishes , the ships, the  whales s and the great sea serpents, that might be seen occasionally , he would be  quieter r in his element, and I think there is as much danger travelling by Rail as by Sea, but we will not all persuade anyone to come until we first see what kind of doings there are and whether we can get a livelihood  or not .
Sunday 24th June.
A very blustering morning  the wind is high and in a right direction for us , so we are going ahead beautifully , that is the best of it , two ships in sight  but a great distance from us. We have not been able to have Church service today, owing to the roughness of the weather. We could not take our stand upon deck, there would have been a great deal of reeling about among us , and there might have been a few tumbles , not at all unlikely , so the Doctor declined reading the Service to us .
Monday 25th June.
We have had a rough night of it last night and it is still squally this morning. I can assure you we have very hard work at times to keep on our legs, we do get to stumble sometimes , as well as others of the passengers . It is a wonder none of our party have never been scalded, for our births are right opposite to the main hatchway--where most of the hot water, and gruel, and all such like come down. There is nearly always some one coming down the steps with hot stuff and occasionally there has been stumbles, but fortunately no one seriously scalded except a boy that fell down with some hasty pudding . He burnt his face very much with it, and fell with his head right against our birth , but fortunately the Children were all out of the way, thank God that we and our children have all escaped fire  and hope we shall do so to the end of our voyage , but at present we are very much exposed to it. We hope in  three weeks time to be in Adelaide , if we have all  favourable  winds  we are I suppose  three thousand two  hundred miles  from the Port. It is eleven weeks  since tomorrow when we left Plymouth , and we have never seen land since, it will be such a treat for us to get sight of land again, if we shall be spared that privilege , we shall be most overjoyed at the very sight of it. We have nearly lost all the birds.
Tuesday 26th June        Page 13
A fine morning after a very rough night  , I was nearly pitched out of bed once or twice during last night  owing to the ship learching so much . We have had some fine fun trying to keep ourselves in bed, it was rather a  a difficult task, but we managed after all. We are not going quite so fast today, we have cut into the Ham  that " Bro" John gave us . Our party have all enjoyed our dinners of it today, and a very good one it is-- some of our neighbours seemed to look  with a longing eye at it as if they would like a bit, it is such a treat is a Yorkeshire Ham on ship board , I am afraid it will soon be done
Wednesday 27th, June
A wet morning the sea is calm we are going slowly again. Eleanor is not very well this morning, I am afraid she will be a very delicate subject to take on shore. She is so weak and getting very thin. Mrs. Sootheran is the best sailor by far of any of our women folks. I do not know how we should have done without her.
Thursday 28th June
A very cold wet uncomfortable morning, and we are going very much out of  our course owing to contrary winds, which is rather disheartening, but we must not complain , we have got on very well so far, and have kept from any serious accident.
Friday 29th June.
A cold morning, Eleanor still not well, we are going out of our course very much  this morning, a great many birds about us today. There has been six Albatrosses caught . I should like to send  you one or two over to England , the difficulty is in getting them stuffed here , besides, they would be a great expense sending, otherwise you would like to have one of them, they are a very pretty bird Cheer up man.
Saturday 30th June.
A fine morning, and we are going middling, one Albatross caught today, they have had some others made ready, some in pies, and some roasted, but it was none of it very tempting , the pigeons eat better than the Albatrosses, but none of them very excellent , nothing to be compared with your pigeon pies in England.
Sunday 1st July.
A very cold wet uncomfortable morning, it is miserable here on ship board  of a wet day, when we cannot get up on deck. There are so many children squatting about , I can  compare it nothing else but a hive of bees, we are so thick set and such a gabbling among us , you may form some idea what sort of a noise there will be, when only a few old Wives in England get set in a room together  what a talking  there is among them, all of them want to make their speech together , it is just the same here, only there are so many more of them, they make a great deal more noise. No  Church service  today owing to the inclemency of the weather. This is twice we have omitted.
Monday 2nd July.
A fine winters morning , we are going fast in our right course . Eleanor I am sorry to say is no better, nor do I think she will as long as she remains on the Ship, but hope she will recruit up again if she lives to get on land. We are calculating  of being at the far end in about a fortnight , but of course we cannot tell, all depends on the weather, and  favourable  winds . Caught another very fine Albatross today, it is fine fun to see them drawn up .

Tuesday 3rd July.        Page 14
A very squally morning  a great many of us had  a tumble, perhaps one man is laughing at another for staggering about, and there comes  a sudden roll of the Ship and sends him right down , so we go on, but Mrs. Sootheran has fallen and  hurt her  leg . She has scrubbed the skin off but hope it will not be serious . One young man, Chambers, from Driffield fell and cut his forehead very much. The Doctor has to sew it up in two places , he appears very sick and ill with it, but we are going rapidly along , and the right way.
Wednesday 4th July.
A cold squally morning with a rough sea, but the wind is right way for us, and we are going on well at twelve miles an hour. That will do nicely, we have just had a tremendous shower of hailstones , such a large size the people that got hurt yesterday by falling, are a little better today. One of the Cabin passengers has just fallen and broken his nose, he was laughing heartily  at another person who had just got  a tumble and happened that accident himself .I have a regular chapter  of accidents  for you this week, hope there will be better news next, but really is amusing to see us tumbling about so.
Thursday 5th July.
Another rough morning , and a great swelling sea. We have been very much tossed about during the night, the sea washed over and came down  by pailfulls in the main hatchway , close to where we were sleeping . We had to get up and begin of mopping it up and a wet job it was. I have had two regular tumbles today. I hurt the back part of my head and likewise my foot. I am  quite lame with it . I have got some drugs to rub on it, hope I shall soon be better , we  have got to think nothing of a regular  good tumble now.
Friday 6th July.
A little milder this morning and we are going beautifully along , not quite so much rolling about. It is Mary Ann's birthday today, Easing…..midsummer Fare. She is five years old and appears quite happy on the sea .
Saturday 7th July.
A very high wind with a great swelling sea , we are getting very much tossed about again this morning, but thank God  thus far we have been wonderfully preserved , my foot is a good deal better , but I am still lame of it yet, but hope soon to be bette. We all appear now to be getting into good spirits , as we are drawing near our future destination, of we should be spared to reach it. Eleanor still continues poorly yet, and Eliza sticks close to bed this rough weather. Cheer up Man.
Sunday 8th July.
A fine winter's morning, we have just had a strong shower of hail, and we hope to have only another Sunday to spend on the Ship Cromwell, if all be well. We have not been able to have Church service again today, the weather is so rough I am afraid you will think the Doctor  is getting tired of officiating as parson, but it is not so, we really cannot stand on deck during the rough weather, it is no fault of his..
Monday 9th July.
A fine morning we are going nicely along, about ten miles an hour all well except Eleanor. John Henry is getting quite fat, you would not know him again he is so improved , but still after all he is only a delicate child. I think we shall never rear him. He has always been so cross  to what either of the others were, as if he had something hanging  about him, but hope he will be better for the sea voyage , we cannot tell.
Tuesday 10th July.
A fine winter's morning we are going well and have done all last night, we hope in about another week to have land sounded in our ears. That will  be delightful.
Wednesday 11th July.                Page 15
Going on, but  not exactly on our right course , the wind is not quite so favourable for us today, nothing particularly fresh now , you will think I am  getting tired of writing, or that I am stretching my eyes  to get a view of land, and so neglect my journal but it is not so. I am afraid when you get it ,if ever you do, it will not be worth the postage , it is so much all alike , but you must excuse all deficiencies.
Thursday 12th July.
We had a very rough night of it last night. I think as bad as ever we had it, the wind blew hard, the sea was tempestuous  and the women folks were all very much afraid . It is a little calmer this morning , but the wind we have is wrong way for us , we cannot make much   progress this way, hope we shall soon have it more favourable.
Friday 13th July.
Rather a dull morning, thick and showery, the wind still unfavourable, another confinement on board. Last night  about half past nine  another woman was delivered of a little girl, both doing as  well as can be expected, and as married woman, I think this must be a girl year, they have all been girls , I think, but one, that have been on the Cromwell . I should think perhaps this will be the last during the voyage.
Saturday 14th July.
The sea is very calm this morning, we are scarcely moving at all hope we shall soon have a good wind in our favour, it is a fine day, and there has been two Albatrosses caught today. That helps to liven us up a bit, when we get something we delight in. William had near come to a very serious accident today. There was a cask  upon deck which had  had sugar in  it, and was put there for the purpose of splitting  up for the fire. It was laid down on its side  and William  crept into it seeing  a bit of sugar that had been left in the  crevices as there will be in all sugar casks. Billy thought he would have it out , so in he gets as the cask was laid , and begins his task, of course I did not see him, and I think no one  had noticed him go in, but however during the time he was in, the man came with his axeto split up the cask, not thinking at all any one would be in , he commences with the first blow. The axe went through  the wood  into the cask, and just grazed William's head, there was a slight scratch and a great ……. Rose  up almost the size of an egg, if the axe had been sharp he might have split his head. Billy shouted terribly and was not to bid come out  of the cask , the man wondered what was the matter, threw down his axe, and there was quite a commotion on deck, another person comes running to me , saying my little boy has got nearly killed. I ran to see what was the matter, and saw Billy upon his legs , but crying , come thinks I, he is not so very bad, so I desired to know all about it, and soon got to know how it had happened. Was no fault at all to the man with the axe. William had no business there, and I had often warned him about going to that part of the ship, but after all I think he was more frightened than hurt, hope it will be a lesson for him to do as he is bid .
Sunday 15th July.
A very healthy morning, fine frost air and sunshine , and we are going on our right course, and a good speed, but we shall not get to the end of our voyage quite so soon as we anticipated, only we get safely landed, we must not be particular to time. Being such a fine day we have had Church service . The Doctor has given us  a farewell sermon today, so he does  not intend  us to be on board  next Sunday, all be well.
Monday 16th July.   
A fine morning we are going nicely , we hope to see land tomorrow or next day. Kangaroo Islands  will be what we shall see first, I suppose, then we shall have land sight all the way. They are not far from Adelaide.  We anticipate about Thursday , being at the far end we are preparing a little . Eleanor is not well, that is the worst of it, she will be very weak to go on shore, the rest of us all well. Mrs. Sootheran  has kept up wonderfully , hope she will be abundantly rewarded for all her kindness towards us  and our's . We have a fine bracing wind today. Cheer up man.
Tuesday 17th July.
A fine morning , and we have a god breeze, quite in our  favour, but we have not got sight of land yet. I am afraid some of us will be straining our eyes with looking so earnestly for it. We all  seem very anxious to get a glimpse, we shall surely see it tomorrow.
Wednesday. 18th July.
Hurrah, Hurrah, Hurrah, was the salute this morning , so we  out of bed jumped, it was which could get the first sight, the long looked for has at last made its appearance .We have today a fine view of the Kangaroo Islands . They look very pleasant, but do not appear to be inhabited, we shall be about eight miles from them at the nearest point . It is certainly a great treat to see land  again. We are now in the Gulf of St. Vincent , and going very nicely. We can  see Australia land now .
Thursday 19th July.
Joyful news, we got the pilot on board at half past eight o clock this morning, but I do not think we shall get to the Port today as we have ten miles to go yet and the wind has  settled , so we are at a standstill , it is all up river work now we have done with the sea , if we do not get up to the Port tonight we shall have a steamer to tow us up in the morning, and except the wind rises  we cannot get up.
Friday 20th July.
Arrived safe in the Port at eight  o clock this morning. Thank God for all his goodness to us, whilst traveling through the mighty deep. We had to be towed up the River by a Steamer. The men were down with her   about six o clock, so they soon had us safely in Port, and James and Eliza , Mrs Sootheran and myself set off to the town to  seek lodgings . We rode for one shilling each. It is about seven miles from the Port to Adelaide , they have spring carts they use for conveying passengers , like your butcher's cart, two horses in, one before the other, and away they go, but it was their rainy season when we landed, it rains for days together sometimes, and the roads and streets were so dirty. WE had a strange day of it . When we got to Adelaide , the streets were almost up to the knees inmud, and we had to wade about in mud and wet, nearly all the day, lodgings are so scarce, and dear, it was with difficulty we could meet with any , but we succeeded at last. I thought it was a rough start for us , we got back to the Ship. I got Mrs. Sootheran into a cart with difficulty, as they were all full, James and Eliza stopped all night , because they could not meet with a conveyance, and I set of and walked , and a sad walk I had, it was dark before I got half way, and up to the knees almost every stride , but I  got through at last, perseverance and patience does a great deal.

Matthew Henry Crosby. ,                Adelaide  5th November 1949

My Dear Mildred,
Having given you a brief account of our voyage, I will now fill up this page with what we have had to undergo since we arrived in Adelaide . I can assure you we have had our troubles since we came , but the Lord has supported us  thus far. In  the first place we lost our very dear boy , John Henry. He had got quite fat and we all thought him so much better for the voyage , but it pleased God to take him to himself  out of this troublesome  world . He died on the twenty fourth of August , about half past twelve o clock at night , the disease was croup, poor  little dear, I had got so much attached to him with nursing him on shipboard that it was a very great trial indeed both to me and dear Eleanor , but the Lord's Will Be Done, and as for poor Eleanor , she has never been well since she came . She has only been to Chapel once. We have a Doctor that attends her now, and we hope she is getting better  but very slowly . I think she got a severe cold just before  she left Ship, she was for about a month that she could not walk about , seemed to have no use for her legs , but she is better of  that  now . She was not able to follow the dear child to the grave , but although in a strange land , we are not without  our friends, we have many kind friends around us……..I am in a grocery store, I  get one  pound a week and my meat and come home to sleep, which is very pleasant. If I have my health I shall try  to . keep this situation. We have plenty of good meat and plenty of work--and now for the country. It is  really a beautiful country. I have traveled about twenty miles , in some parts thirty miles round and find it a nice place and the land very fertile, any person with about a couple of hundred pounds might do very well, but a great many of the large farmers have got on without having any capital to start with , and I have no doubt it will still be the case … Money is scarce . They can get twenty per cent  and good security for it.
Now for provisions , beef from 2 to 3  shillings per  lb. , good mutton the same, tea from one  to two shillings per lb., sugar two to three pence per lb.., coffee ten pence to one shilling per lb., all these articles quite as good as  you have in England.
Now my dear Mildred I must not encroach on another sheet of  paper, I am afraid you will think  this long rigmeroll concern not worth the postage ,  but I have done as you wished me , and as I promised to send you a Journal, here you have it  in my own rough way, but that you must excuse, you would perhaps say what is my opinion about any of my friends emigrating. I would not advise anyone to come here, except they can work and are willing to do so, people must not come here with the idea that they can live without working. For my part I do not regret at all  coming, only dear Eleanor was better, and I still continue to have my health. I do not fear making a living , there has been a very great quantity of ships in since we came , and before we came, which at present have rather cluttered the Labour market. You must next send us a few ship loads of men of Capital to buy up a lot of waste land  and find more employment for those industrious class of work people .
Adieu for the present, our united love to all,all,all  our dear relations and friends in England . God bless you all , and if not permitted to meet again on Earth may we at least  meet together in our Father's House  above is the sincere…….

Your … Brother
Matthew Henry Crosby.
P.S. We received your kind letter….sized package about a fortnight ago for which we felt……….Mrs Sootheran, Jane Grace desire their kind love to you……..desire to be remembered to you all especially to little…… contradict the report that  had got to Yorkshire  about…………at Plymouth, there never being the slightest ….kind. We are quite at a  loss  to know how it could…..
We shall always feel thankful for a letter or news paper from any of you, and direct them to be left at the Post Office , Adelaide, South Australia, till called for.
 Eleanor was out in the garden yesterday for the first time of  above a month. I think she is on the improve  but still very weak. We begin to feel the hot weather now , but it is not got to the hottest yet. We shall have some new potatoes of our own growing in  about  a  fortnight time.
We attend Mr. Stowe's Chapel, independants  of  course . He has been to see Eleanor several times . It is a very good Chapel and well attended. They are going to erect galleries , the place being too small so you  may  judge they are rather in a prosperous way but there a many good Chapels here  and most of them well attended . Eleanor would have written a few lines but does not feel able , she hopes you will excuse her. Our dear John Henry would have been a year old if he had lived another five weeks.
Goodbye and God bless you-
Matthew Henry Crosby.